Rising prevalence of overweight and obesity and its health consequences have prompted the World Health Organization to identify it as one of today’s important public health problems. Calorie restriction along with moderate intensity exercises is a proven solution for weight reduction. After weight reduction has occurred, maintaining the body weight is a challenge. Lost weight will be regained back unless a weight maintenance program is followed indefinitely.
Chronic energy deficiency is due to chronic food deficiency. A person with a Body mass index less than 18.5 kg/m2 falls in the underweight category and has limited capacity for sustained heavy work and has lower productivity. Under nutrition may lead to under function of the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, reproductive glands and adrenal glands and can pose a variety of symptoms. Nutrition support and smart dietary changes are effective in healthy and appropriate weight gain
Special Dietary Requirements
Nutrition during Pregnancy
Optimal preconceptual nutrition supports successful conception when it includes adequate amounts of all the required vitamins, minerals and energy providing macronutrients. Because the developing fetus depends solely on the transfer of nutrients from its mother, there is simply no other means to acquire nutrition in utero.
The cliché that the “fetus is the perfect parasite” implies that the fetus takes entirely what it requires at the expense of the mother. Therefore the pregnant woman needs to have a sound understanding of what a nutritious diet is, in order to preserve her own health and adequately nourish the growing fetus.
After birth, quality nutrition during lactation continues the process of providing nutritional building blocks for maximal cerebral development and growth of all body organs in the infant.
Post delivery Weight loss
Maternal weight gain during pregnancy must be carefully monitored and pregnant women need to be counseled about the appropriate weight gain depending on preconception body weight and Body mass index. Because additional weight gained during each pregnancy can be associated with being overweight and obese later on in life, the approach should be to eat a healthy balanced diet and pursue an active lifestyle in order to shed off the extra weight without much delay. A nutritionist’s advice can be very helpful post delivery and give good guidance and plan on losing weight without compromising intake of nutrients.
Nutritional anemias are caused by lack of nutrients required for normal synthesis of red blood cells; principally Iron, Vitamin B12 and folic acid. Inadequate dietary intake without supplementation is the possible cause. Heavy menstrual blood loss can cause Iron deficiency in women. In addition to Iron supplementation attention should be given to the amount of absorbable dietary Iron consumed. Education about Iron, folate, B12 vitamin rich foods is the key to avoid recurrence of Anemia in a woman.